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Embedded Systems

Definition of embedded or latent system

An embedded system is a system based on a microprocessor or microcontroller designed to be used in a larger mechanical or electrical system, as a combination of software and hardware. Usually at the center of an embedded system are special electrical circuits that are capable of processing operations in real time.

The complexity of an embedded system is highly dependent on the set of tasks for which it is intended. Thus, an embedded system can use only one processor or contain a set of different processors. Or, for example, in terms of software, the embedded system may have no graphical user interface, or the most complex and specialized graphical user interface may be designed to communicate with it.

How does an embedded system work?

In general, various methods are used to manage embedded systems, some of which are mentioned below. These processing systems are placed next to components that are collectively programmed to control and manage the mechanical or electrical interface.

  • Use of Microcontrollers
  • Use of Digital Signal Processors (DSP)
  • Use of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)
  • Use of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
  • Use of technology used in graphics processors (Graphics Processing Unit or GPU)
  • Using Gate Arrays

In the case of embedded systems, the discussion of hardware resource constraints is inevitable, and programming commands are stored and executed as firmware in a read-only memory or flash memory chips. Embedded systems are also used to communicate with the outside world of peripherals and various input and output devices.

The basic structure of an embedded system

If we want to propose a basic structure for embedded systems, we can mention the following components:

  • Sensor: The sensor receives, measures, converts, and stores electrical signals in memory for later reading and use by an embedded system engineer or other electronic device.
  • A-D Converter: An analog-to-digital converter converts the analog signal received from the sensor into a digital signal.
  • D-A Converter: A digital-to-analog converter converts digital processor signals to analog data.
  • Actuator: An operator compares the output received from a digital to analog converter with the actual output and stores the result.


Expected future for embedded systems

The existing industry for embedded systems is expanding day by day and since in a wide range including Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Machine Learning, Machine Learning Deep Learning and the Internet of Things (IoT) will be developed very rapidly. Embedded systems will be the focus of topics such as reducing energy consumption, increasing security, cloud communications, mesh networking, deep learning applications, and visualization tools for real-time data.